Courtney Rhoads


Municipal laws that identify permitted uses for areas of property within the municipality, such as residential, industrial, commercial, and hybrid zones.


Crimes that may be treated and punished as either felonies or misdemeanors depending on the circumstances of the underlying act.

Williams Memo

Memorandum issued on May 18, 2018 by U.S. Attorney Billy J. Williams of the District of Oregon, titled “Priorities in Enforcement of Federal Laws Involving Marijuana in the District of Oregon.” Enumerated five federal enforcement priorities in the District of Oregon, include overproduction, protecting children, violence, organized crime and protecting natural resources.

Wilkinson Memo

Memorandum issued on October 8, 2014 by Monty Wilkinson, Director of the U.S. Department of Justice, titled “Policy Statement for Marijuana Issues in Indian Country.”  Enumerated and limited the federal government’s enforcement priorities with respect to marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act to prioritize enforcement of eight different types of activities, including preventing distribution to


A class of license granted to cannabis distributors in certain jurisdictions. 

War on Drugs

Domestic and international campaign led by the United States government, in coordination with state, local, and international agencies, to stop the cultivation, import, distribution, and use of illegal drugs.

Warning Letter

Correspondence from a government agency notifying the recipient that it has violated a law, regulation, or permit condition and demanding that the recipient rectify or correct the violation.

Voter Initiatives

Also referred to as ballot initiatives or propositions, citizen tools to repeal or amend an existing law or create a new law or constitutional provision. Voter initiatives are voted on after initial sponsors receive certain thresholds of signatures from registered voters within a jurisdiction.

Vertical Integration

Business structure where more than one, or all, stages of production of products (such as cultivation, manufacturing, and retail sales) are owned or operated by one company or commonly owned or operated companies. Certain states restrict or mandate vertical integration for cannabis companies.

Vape Cartridge

Cartridge inserted into an electronic cigarette or similar device that contains cannabis oil or other liquids for vaporization and inhalation.